Wednesday, October 10, 2018

Agenda for America:
Complete Presidential Platform in 5 Points

By Hap Cluff, a Conservative/Libertarian
First Published June 15, 2014 -Updated: August 16, 2018

          Jobs - Energy - Infrastructure - Law Reform - Borders

Produce 62 Million New Jobs in U.S. over next 10 Years
Increase LFP (Labor Force Participation) from 63% to 73% Enact FairTax* & Repeal 16th Amendment “Income Tax”
*H.R. 25 & S.18, Fair Tax Act of 2017 - HJR 94 Repeal 16th
U.S. 100% Energy Self-Sufficient
Secure 100 Year Reserve
U.S. #1 Exporter of Refined (not raw) Energy
U.S. Ranked #1 in ICT (Information & Communication Technologies) - Currently U.S. is Ranked 34th in World
1Gb Fiber Optic to Every Home, Business, & Organization
Law Reform
Loser Pays for All Costs of Lawsuits & Enact Liability Limits
Curtail Regulatory Burden & Require Sunset for New Regs
Term Limits for all Elected Officials & all Judges
Zero Illegal Entry - 1st Time a Felony (not misdemeanor) Boost Legal “Guest Workers” by 4 Times
    - Foreign born CANNOT displace a U.S. Citizen
Limit Legal Permanent Immigration to 250,000 per year
Visa Holders get Tamper Proof ID’s with electronic tracking
Refugees: provide safe, liveable refuge in their own country


1. Jobs. The meaning of life is to earn your own way. Ten (10) year jobs goal: increase the labor force participation (LFP) from 63% to 73% do it by creating 62 million new jobs (517,000 each & every month). Fact: over $2.8 trillion dollars are held outside our borders by U.S. companies. Why? Income Taxes. Imagine if businesses located within the borders of the U.S. paid zero taxes? That $2.8 trillion (and a lot more) would pour back into the U.S. generating over 28 million new jobs for Americans. We must repeal all “income” based taxes and replace with the FairTax, a 100% revenue neutral tax, based on consumption. Single biggest cost of goods and services (aside from the taxes themselves) is the cost to comply (accounting, tracking) with taxes. This is a 22% wasted cost burden on each and everyone of us, it is eliminated with the FairTax.

2. Energy. Economic solvency and worldwide security are directly connected to the U.S. being 100% energy independent and self-sufficient. By controlling our own energy resources we make our friends strong and our enemies beholden. Carbon fuels are here to stay for at least the next 200 years. We must invent, not tax or subsidize, our way out of using carbon. Nuclear power is the cleanest, most cost effective, non-carbon source for electricity production. Wind and solar farms scar our countryside, kill endangered species, bats, and birds; are not cost effective; they may never exceed more than 6%-9% of total needed capacity.

3. Infrastructure. U.S. must become, and remain, number one (#1) in technology. The information and communication technologies (ICT) “Environment Subindex,” which measures the “friendliness of a country’s regulatory framework in supporting high levels of ICT uptake” ranks U.S. #34 in the world (2013). There is no excuse for the U.S. not being #1. Ten (10) year ICT goal: Deploy 1Gb (1 gigabit -upload) internet fiber optic connectivity to every home, business, and organization (FTTP). The savings in services delivery efficiencies and revenues generated by an ubiquitous 1Gb internet, will not only cover all support and upgrade costs of the FTTP system, it is estimated to be sufficient to pay for all ongoing maintenance and new construction of federal, state, and local physical infrastructure (roads, bridges, tunnels, dams,

4. Law Reform. Lawsuit abuse is one of the biggest costs to consumers in U.S. Two reforms: one, “loser pays” if you file a lawsuit and lose you pay all costs (court and defendants); two, limited liability with no-fault payouts (does not apply for criminal neglect). If you think you deserve greater compensation for your injuries or damages than are allowed by the no-fault limits, guess what; get your own insurance. According to NYT Magazine (2016) over $1.9 trillion sits inside the U.S. in “cash” accounts of U.S. businesses. (This is equivalent to 19 million jobs.) Why? Because costs of government regulations and frivolous lawsuits (settled out of court to avoid trial costs) are unknown.

5. Borders. No borders, No country. Nothing matters unless we control our borders. Our leaders must demonstrate zero illegal entry for at least two years. Follow that up with a streamlined and automated legal immigration process. A states’ (not Federal) issued and controlled tamper proof identification and electronic tracking system. Over 40% of current illegal aliens came in legally and “we” have lost track of them. Fact, 90% of visa holders overstay. With an ID tracking system in place and proven to work (for a least two (2) years) then, and only then, create a guest worker program for seasonal employment which is electronically tracked. Foreign born cannot displace a U.S. Citizen. Additionally, up the qualifications for legal permanent resident immigration and reduce the quotas to 250,000 per year. The current 990,000 annual rate (2014) is unsustainable. Fact, H1-B visa meant as a means to attract high value/super skilled workers has turned into a cheap labor source for technology companies and displacing U.S. citizens - this must stop. Example: your house on a hot summer day all the windows and doors are wide open. Would you then run the air conditioner? No. You would close all the doors and windows, make sure that weather stripping was placed around them, and install double pane tinted windows. You would add insulation in the walls and attic and install attic fans. Even put solar panels on the roof. That’s what “build the wall” means.

Executive Briefing Outline

1.  Jobs. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs, in fact More Jobs than Workers - More Skilled Jobs than Trained Workers; Goal: 73% Labor Force Participation (LFP) Rate by 2028.  Vision:Create and maintain more “private sector” skilled jobs within the borders and territories of the U.S. than there are trained workers to fill those jobs. To achieve this goal means one, make locating a business within the borders of the U.S. more attractive and lucrative than in any other country; and second, make sure businesses know this will always be the case. Fact: of all job eligible workers, 59% are either unemployed, on government assistance, or want to work full time, but are not. This is a National disgrace. On top of all that are 1.8 million net new first-time job seekers entering the workforce every year. We must create 62,000,000 new jobs over the next 10 years --6.2 million per year, 517,000 per month (nearly 300,000 per month more than in any month of the last three presidents). Here is how to create a lot of jobs:
     a.  FairTax - Zero (0.00%) income based taxation, zero corporate taxes. Americans pay an estimated $1 trillion annually in hidden tax-compliance costs, which is equivalent to over 10 million jobs. Individuals and businesses waste 3 billion hours every year preparing tax returns. The Treasury forgoes approximately $450 billion per year in unreported taxes. The single biggest barrier to the economy, especially jobs, is the “income tax,” with its 72,954 pages of codes and rules, and the 97,000 IRS tax enforcers. All other ”tax fixes” pale by comparison, like “rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic.” The FairTax would repatriate U.S. companies offshore $2.8 trillion which is equivalent to 28 million jobs. With the FairTax we could attracted international companies to keep their money in the U.S.; just 1% of the world’s $50 trillion GDP is equivalent to 5 million more American jobs.
          1). Repeal 16th Amendment/Income Tax -House Joint Resolution 94 (HJ Res 94).
          2). Pass the Fair Tax Act of 2017 -House Resolution 25 (H.R. 25) & Senate Bill 18 (S.18). (S18, HR25, & HJR94)
     b.  Implement a Balanced Budget Amendment to include Presidential line item veto. Until the budget is balanced government is shut down. NO BUDGET-NO SPENDING -here is what will happen:
          1). Elected officials 10% reduced pay. No retroactive pay or adjustments for members of Congress or Executive (White House) or their staffs (they caused the problem, they should suffer the consequences).
          2). Federal employees get zero cost of living adjustments (unless it is a reduction), no bonuses, no merit increases, no time-in-grade raises.
          3). Federal employees and contractors may be eligible for retroactive partial or full compensation. After budget is balanced and approved.
          4). Military (not DoD) and their support contractors continue with full compensation.
     c.  Accountability of Unemployment -Use BLM U-6 --NOT just U-3 (see Table) as measure for unemployment rates and percentages.
          1). Create U-7 through U-12 (see Table) track: new job seekers, ratio of internships to jobs, ratio of government vs. private sector jobs.
          2). Private sector jobs grow economy; government jobs detract. Adopt a “net jobs” policy by subtracting out government jobs from private sector jobs.
     d.  Job Training. Schools should focus on preparing skilled workers, who are ready to work.
          1). Colleges refund tuition to graduates who go jobless in their field of study. Fact: 30% of job seekers have college degrees only 20% of jobs require degrees.
          2). Secondary, higher, and vocational education must provide paid internships with school credit for every student; working in coordination with local employers.
          3). Homeschoolers granted full academic status. May participate in all of their local public school extracurricular programs.
     e.  School Choice -Issue vouchers so parents can determine their school of choice. Once there are more jobs than workers the competition from outside the U.S. for those jobs will become intense. The way to counter this is with school competition.

2.  Energy. Self Sufficiency, 100 Years Reserve, and #1 Worldwide (Refined) Exporter. Vision: Achieve Worldwide Social, Political, and Economic Stability. Energy Goal:Produce and deliver, without subsidizes, U.S. energy and related technology at a lower cost than any other country. With U.S. energy self sufficiency, we could actually enforce economic sanctions on any rogue state or terrorist organization. Because the U.S. could supply our allies with all the energy they need any time. This would allow our friends to never be forced to negotiate with, or be threatened by, the likes of ISIS, Iran, North Korea, Hamas, Al Qaeda, Hezbollah, et. al. By all estimates there are at least 1,000 years of affordable and accessible clean carbon based energy. We could use this to first, build a solid economy for the U.S. and our allies, and then, offer these less costly energy resources to non-allies based on condition of human rights and anti-terrorism efforts. Fact: Russia is #1 supplier of energy to China; nothing can go wrong with that, right?
     a.  Energy Program -Three (3) Components to a secure and pollution free future via affordable efficient raw and refined resources and exports.
          1). U.S. 100% self reliant energy: production, supply, refinement, and delivery.
                a). Drill offshore inside 25 mile barrier. This relieves natural oil seepage which threatens environmentally sensitive areas. States own this resource and may, or may not, choose to share with others.
                b). Expand nuclear energy to maximum, same for fracking and clean coal.
          2). Sustainability -100 year plan to achieve sustainability. Americans will invent our way out of carbon use; no need to “penalty” tax our way out.
                a). High priority: non-carbon propulsion and power production technology;
                b). Low priority: “green” energy resources or conservation -new or renewable.
          3). Export energy technology and refined (not raw) energy to the world. Fact, exporting raw energy takes refining jobs from U.S. citizens. Order of export: friends first, next 3rd world, and then biggest polluters.
                a). Bring our democratic allies to energy independence and self sufficiency;
                b). Offer to non-democratic allies, neutral non-allies, and lastly “enemies” --least cost energy resources (e.g., less than Russia or China can produce it for).
                c). Encourage development of low cost means for clean coal conversion. This includes fracking and other energy efficiencies. Provide incentives to inventors to sell technology to China and India by offering expedited processing.
                d). Address third world poverty and hunger. Fact: 1.2 billion people live without electricity or running water.
                     (1).  Fuel alcohol (clean burning) for cooking produced on individual family farms; foliage regeneration for water filtration and sewage treatment.
                     (2).  Technology: e.g., PowerPot™ boils water to make electricity for lights and charging batteries.
     b.  No forced (faux) innovation. Declare a moratorium on funding, subsidies, and tax benefits for all carbon dioxide (CO2) “green house” related anthropogenic (human caused) global warming (AGW) initiatives until proven to be scientifically validated with actual data, not faux science using only computer models, i.e., wind, solar, electric cars,

3.  Infrastructure. U.S. #1 in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) -At all levels of government federal, state, local, and tribal. Vison: Achieve and maintain U.S. as the #1 ICT country by 2028. Create Cabinet level Department of ICT with governance structure, funding, and technology savvy leadership to achieve and maintain #1 ICT status in perpetuity. Assure unfettered internet and outernet access worldwide. Critical communications needs: speed at 1Gb (1 gigabit) upload, security of connectivity, and safety of users. ICT includes transportation which addresses pollution and physical distribution of people, goods, and services.
     a.  FTTP -Fiber Optic cable to every premise (home, business, and public facility) by 2028. Estimated cost, over 10 years, $3 trillion (FTE 300,000 jobs for 10 years), 5-10 year return on investment (ROI) including sufficient revenue to sustain a state-of-the-art system and ongoing maintenance.
          1). Much like streets, sewers, and water system the ownership of FTTP is with city, county, regional, or tribal council (not states, not private sector, not feds).
                a). States develop fiber backbone; like state highway system.
                b). “Loan-to-Own” program federal and state governments to back state and locally issued revenue bonds.
          2). Schools first (public and private, charter, and homeschoolers).
          3). Priority for use of newly generated revenues; by local government:
                a). Maintain the FTTP system, delivery, and security;
                b). Repay loan (est. 20 years) to bond holders and/or state or federal;
                c). Build or upgrade local infrastructure: streets, bridges, levees, dams, etc. (capital projects only); provide sustainable life-cycle (build, maintain, replace).
                d). Provide technological upgrades for local emergency services and improved municipal services delivery.
     b.  Key Components of an ubiquitous FTTP System Include:
          1). Wireless access point (WAP) at every endpoint (house, building) for public access WiFi;
          2). Accommodate communities of interest: to block undesirable content and protect from: predators, criminals, hackers,
          3). Underground all aerial communications and power lines to homes, businesses, other buildings (cost included in FTTP estimate above);
          4). Loan repayment from revenues must be 100% dedicated to federal and/or state government’s internal technological infrastructure and process automation. Cannot be diverted to social programs.
     c.  EMP (electro magnetic pulse) protection of power grid. Cost $10 billion (2015 est.) annual cost to ratepayers under $14 a year. Renovate all existing facilities to protect against physical attacks i.e, by environmental protestors, home grown terrorists, or foreign invasion.
     d.  Support Outernet’s toaster sized low orbiting satellite free WiFi worldwide system.
     e.  Human Colony on Mars established and sustainable by 2048; Moon 2038.
     f.   Build coast to coast vacuum tube transport system by 2038. Evacuated Tube Transport Technologies (ET3, Inc.) claims it can be done for 1/10th the cost of High Speed Rail and 1/4th the cost of a freeway. Travel coast to coast in under one (1) hour.

4.  Law Reform. Limits on: Liability, Lawsuits, Insurance, Terms, and Government Regulation - Vision: Legal system that rewards and protects those who do the right thing.One Goal: No one ever has to go to court to get reimbursed for injury or property damage expenses.
     a.  Limits on Liability, “no fault” payouts, and unlimited personal/private insurance.
          1). “Accidental” injury: e.g., life $1 million, eye $100,000 -- If you believe your life, body parts, skills, or property are worth more, then purchase your own insurance.
                a). No fault payouts within 30 days. If a person is injured or property is destroyed, regardless of fault, immediate payout for treatment and/or repairs.
                b). Liability limits are adjusted annually based on CPI, no legal fees, no administrative fees, not taxed, and paid within 90 days.
                c). Auto or highway related should be funded from gasoline consumption tax or electric car mileage fees.
          2). No liability limit on “criminal” activity or neglect; or “willful” malpractice.
          3). Unlimited Personal/Private Insurance. Individuals may buy all the insurance they want.
     b.  Limits on Lawsuits, “loser pays” legal system. You file a lawsuit and lose, then you pay all court costs and both yours and the defendant’s legal fees. Current system creates distrust among us to the point that we refrain from saying or doing even the right things for fear of being sued. End out-of-court settlements based on that being the least costly alternative over a trail, even though you know you are in the right.
          1). Create Professional Jurors to expedite trial times and taxpayer costs. Only used if agreed to by both parties and one or both pay all costs. Example: jurors with expertise in DNA, medical procedures, finances, corporate law, patents, etc.
          2). Medicalize (NOT legalize) all drugs. Mandatory electronic tracking all prescription and “recreational” dispensing. Felony to not track. End doctor shopping.
     c.  Limits on Health Insurance (NOT health care), Fact: over of 33% of health care costs are for unneeded procedures --no need for government to regulate because loser pays and liability limits/no fault systems will self regulate --see a). and b). above.
          1). Catastrophic coverage for all. This addresses costs and programs for the 5% separate and apart from the 95%. Issue: 50% of health care costs are consumed by 5%chronically ill people.
          2). Provide government assistance only for people who are “means tested” qualified.
          3). Individually Owned Insurance: maintain health insurance in the name of the individual or family; not their employer. Employers may reimburse premiums.
                a). Policy cannot be revoked for any health care reason.
                b). Purchase insurance policy from anywhere even across state borders.
          4). Health savings account (HSA). Keep what you don’t spend and will it to benefactors after death, tax free.
          5). Incentive bonus, if you uncover overcharges or fraud you get 10% (tax free) as a reward.
     d.  Curtail Burdensome Regulations, there was a 13% increase in regulatory burden ($70 billion cost annually) from 2008 to 2012 -Pres. Obama’s 1st term. Noted earlier U.S. businesses are holding over $1.9 trillion in the U.S. in “cash” accounts, as insurance against unknown costs of government regulations. This is equivalent to 19 million jobs; not to mention much higher wages for American workers.
          1). Legislators shall be required to review and disclose regulatory consequences of laws prior to voting.
          2). Require all federal agencies to get Congressional approval before putting any major regulations into effect.
          3). All regulations must have expiration dates (sunset provisions) to prevent out-of-date rules from remaining in force and to compel bureaucrats to ask for renewal of regulations they wish to preserve.
          4). Continue Pres. Trump’s EO remove 2 regulations for each new one.
     e.  Term limits for all elected offices, including both appointed and elected judges. Any judge or politician knowing they will have to go back into their community to make a living will cause them, and especially their financial supporters, to be more consciences of the impact their decisions will have on their respective communities. America is not the place for professional politicians or judges.

5.  Borders: Secure Borders, Language, and CultureVison: Advisory to the World: “U.S. Foreign Policy: our borders are sovereign, English is our official language, and our culture is to be respected.” This applies within our borders and anywhere U.S. citizens are legally abiding in the world. The United States is the de facto world’s police. Who else? We are the parents, the adults, of the world and we must assume and assert our role as responsible loving parents. NOTE: the statement that we are a “country of immigrants” is not accurate, we are a “country of assimilated immigrants.” Bring your cultural with you, we will celebrated it with you; but we expect you to assimilate to our culture; it is unique this should be why you came. Goal: Eliminate illegal immigration and enhance legal immigration. Border control is about security and safety. Safety from disease (i.e., ebola, tuberculosis) and safety to interdict all types of “terrorist” (drug cartels, radical Islamists, anti-Christian, anti-free enterprise, indigenous terrorist (i.e., gangs), Note: drug cartels hire enforcers from indigenous gangs, like MS-13, many are U.S. citizens. Fact: there are over 100,000 illegal immigrant gang members living just in Texas right now.
     a.  #1 Secure the Border –And Prove it for at Least 2 Years. Zero illegal entry. The real border issue is not about passing laws, building walls or fences, or hiring more border patrol agents. It is trusting that current and future administrations, congresses, and even Supreme Court Justices, will faithfully enforce the laws as written, build and maintain the wall, and allow ICE and border patrol agents to do their jobs.
          1). Prevent anyone from crossing any illegal entry point.
          2). Make first time illegal entry a felony (currently first time is civil misdemeanor and the second time is felony, which is rarely enforced).
     b.  #2, provide efficient electronic automated legal immigration process. U.S. Immigration Policy: regardless of anyone’s current plight, so long as they are ‘’...yearning to be free...” come on in to America. We are here for you. All we ask is just get a job, learn the language, obey our laws, and respect our culture –this is American exceptionalism.
          1). Applicant Tracking System: Every immigration applicant knows exactly where their application is the process 24/7 online.
          2). Reduce current 1 million permanent immigrants a year back to 250,000 per year.
          3). Raise current 120,000 H-2 (A&B) guest workers to 500,000, provide legal protection, allow for choice of employers, and include visas for family members. Only with tamper proof ID tracking system.
     c.  Tamper Proof State’s Issued Identification (ID). NO federal I.D. system. Contract with Visa or American Express to make, manage, and issue.
          1). Establish a uniform electronic tracking system consortium with all 50 states and territories (federal government may only access with state permission).
          2). Not mandated for those choosing non-access to the “grid” and not engaging in civil disobedience or criminal activity.
     d.  End birthright citizenship (a.k.a. “anchor baby”) by illegal birth mother; mother must be legally in the U.S. (not a tourist or H-2 A/B visa holder) for a baby born here to be U.S. Citizen.
     e.  End chain migration (where people can invite everyone they’ve ever known to join them); End lottery (people randomly picked for immigration).
     f.   U.S. “National Interest” based on Declaration of Independence i.e., unalienable rights. U.S. Constitution is for U.S. citizens. The Declaration is for all mankind. If there is any individual, group, or country being denied life, liberty, of the pursuit of happiness (a.k.a. right to own property) they must know that the people and government of the United States will be there for them.
     g.  Refugee Policy - first and foremost protect and defend all refugees in place, where they are. They must remain in country to be there to retake control and see to it that disruption never happens again.
          1). Leave all refugees in their own country and provided with safe and liveable refuge. Protect and defend their security from enemies and criminals. This is the only possible hope for immediate stability and long term resolution. To relocate refugees to another country is cruel and unusual punishment. Not to mention the potential disruption and risk to the country in which they would be relocated; crime, disease, terrorism, Fact, 25 million jobs in U.S. already held by foreign born workers. Virtually every new job during the Obama presidency went to foreign born immigrants legal and illegal.
          2). No direct government subsidies in U.S. or outside. U.S. government may engage in infrastructure, transportation, or security but shall not provide direct assistance to individuals, families, or groups. Any and all direct assistance shall be provided via charities.

December 2013

Current (U-1 to U-6) Jobless Assessment Measure
Approved by United Nations (U.N.) International Labour Organization (ILO)
Used by U.S. Bureau of Labor Management (BLM)
Percentage of labor force unemployed 15 weeks or longer.
Percentage of labor force who lost jobs or completed temporary work.
Official unemployment rate per ILO definition.
Looked for work in last 4 weeks.
U-3 + "discouraged workers", or those who have stopped looking for work because current economic conditions make them believe that no work is available for them.
U-4 + other "marginally attached workers", or "loosely attached workers", or those who "would like" and are able to work, but have not looked for work recently.
Looked for work in last 12 months but not last 4 weeks.
U-5 + “part time workers” want to work full time, but cannot due to economic reasons.

Proposed (U-7 to U-12) Jobless Assessment Measure
Do NOT Need (or want) U.N. Approval
U-6 + “new-job seekers”, those who enter job market for first time. New entrants minus those leaving workforce (by choice: retire, death, health, homemaker, other (not fired, laid-off)). Fact: 3.2 million graduate High School and 1.2 million dropout HS every year for total of 4.4 million new-job seekers a year. Workers 65+ who retire, or die, are less than 1.9 million per year. 4.4 minus 1.9 = 2.5 x 73% LFP = 1.8 million net new-job seekers a year (150,000 a month) added to unemployment.
Full disclosure actual % of LFP who need jobs.

Dec 2013
“self employed” & LLC, LLP, INC need to be part of LFP %
Track as %
of LFP
“government jobs” by federal, state, local, tribal (e.g., special districts, schools, regional agencies). Breakout by direct government employee, indirect, or contract employee. Fact: Administration tells us there are fewer federal “employees” intimating that government has shrunk. While there may be fewer direct government employees government is still growing by using contract employees and outsourcing. This measure counts all people working directly and/or indirectly for all government agencies.
Track government jobs as
% of total workforce
“training”, track: vocation, trades, interns, apprentices, student teachers, residency, et. al., number of “seats” needed vs. available slots.
Track ratio of need
“university graduates”, job placement alignment with major field of study. Refund of tuition for graduates not getting jobs in alignment with major field of study or degree. Fact: Less than 20% U.S. jobs require 4 year college degree; universities are graduating 30%. A student may sign a waiver and give up the option for tuition reimbursement and take courses not recommended for jobs needed in real world.
Hold universities accountable for educational relevance
“obsolete jobs”, jobs in decline. Knowing this is essential to assist future-job seekers in selecting jobs that will be there when they graduate. Facts: 1 in 3 jobs replaced with robots by 2025; in the prior 30 year period 9 of 10 telephone operators have been replaced by computers.
Track decline in occupational types

Saturday, September 29, 2018

Case Against -Campaign to: “stop issuing permits for fossil fuels”

The Case Against - The Campaign to:
“...stop issuing permits for fossil fuels.”
Open Letter to the Mayor of Huron*, California.
And all signatories of: “Elected Officials To Protect California**”

By Hap Cluff -Posted on Oct 2018

September 29, 2018
Huron Mayor Rey Leon aka Mayor Rey León de Hurón

Mayor, you are doing some great stuff for Huron, keep it up.

RE: Fresno Bee 24 Aug 2018 - “... stop issuing permits for fossil fuels”**

I rarely read the Fresno Bee, but I was in the hospital for surgery and a copy of the 24 Aug 2018 issue was left on my food tray. I have, over my now 77 years, developed a number of time tested and trusted sources for news and information. The Bee is not even in consideration - other than possibly for local events.

As a former Mayor myself, (6th largest city in Los Angeles County at the time) I like to keep my fellow mayors backs covered. However, your statements, as quoted in the Bee, about the environment and causes and effects are largely unsubstantiated in actual raw data. I hope you will be able to extract yourself from the politically correct conspirators in the anti-fossil fuel movement, to consider real world ramifications of not having fossil fuel.

I’ve reviewed your LinkedIn history and understand that you have been involved in the green movement for a considerable time. So, much of what I am stating in this post should be familiar to you. Perhaps not as “conveniently” stated as you are accustomed.

First, apparently from the photo (see image 1) in the Fresno Bee (as noted the Bee is not exactly a bastion of accuracy, so who knows what was really in the photo) you have surrounded yourself with a large number of fellow carnivores (possible exception being the gentleman in the sports jacket). All others are observably heavy (pun intended) consumers of meat, cow’s milk, and eggs.

Are you aware that the number one environmental issue (far and above all others) is water pollution? (Especially, ground water). And what is the greatest cause for the worldwide contamination of our water? YOU, and the other people in that picture!!!. Perhaps you know that over 67% of crops (1) in the U.S. are grown to feed animals - plus 20% of all fish caught are fed to animals (2). Just so humans can eat animals.

The single greatest contributor to water pollution is animal waste not just excrement and urine (3) but the process of getting a living animal killed (or milked), butchered, packaged, and delivered to your table. In addition, over 45% of all animal greenhouse gas emissions are from producing and processing food to feed animals (2). That does not include the methane emitted by said animals (which may be worse than all the production and use effects of “fossil” fuels).

“While carbon dioxide (CO2) is typically painted as the bad boy of greenhouse gases, methane is roughly 30 times more potent as a heat-trapping gas.”(4)

“It takes about 100 calories of grain to produce just 12 calories of chicken or 3 calories worth of beef”(1). This does not include grazing land which is considerable (accounting for at least 60% of cattle’s life).

“Animal protein production requires more than eight times as much fossil-fuel energy than production of plant protein..”(5). I get it you want to have-your bacon-and-eat-it-too.

“Humans in America consume upwards of 3 times the daily recommended amount of protein”(5). Thus wasting water, livestock, and, you guessed it, fossil fuel.

“Standard American Diet (SAD), heavily comprised of animal protein and dairy. [There are]...7.9 billion acres of arable land in the world; If it takes 3.25 acres to feed one person the typical western diet, then our 7 billion+ people would required over 21 billion acres, or the equivalent of almost three planet Earths.(6)

If you really believe in “environmental health” then your real focus should be getting people off SAD and onto a vegan (herbivore) diet.

To simplify it: “The energy consumed (water, grain, to produce one “quarter pounder” of beef would feed 3 people for an entire day”(6). So basically 3 children will starve for an entire day because you had a 1/4 pounder at Mickey Dees.

Let’s continue. What about ethanol? After all, as most believe fossil fuel is just old plants (mixed with some animals) and ethanol is new plants (fertilized with animal stuff and of course petroleum (aka fossil fuel) from which is derived pesticides), does your campaign against “fossil” fuels include all plant based fuels?

“Every time you make 1 gallon of ethanol, there is a net energy loss of 54,000 Btu. ...70 Percent More Energy Required to Make Ethanol than Actually is in Ethanol... Abusing our precious croplands to grow corn for an energy-inefficient process that yields low-grade automobile fuel amounts to unsustainable, subsidized food burning..."(7)
Cornell Professor Roger Segelken

It is far more expensive (and more damaging to the environment) to produce ethanol than just about anything else. The cost to produce ethanol consumes more energy than the amount of ethanol produced. Adding to that cost, cars get less miles per gallon and wear out faster.

Ethanol is similar to the cost/benefit (environmental/damage) ratio as is growing food to feed animals for humans to eat.

“If all the automobiles in the United States were fueled with 100 percent ethanol, a total of about 97 percent of U.S. land area would be needed to grow the corn feedstock. Corn would cover nearly the total land area of the United States.”(7)

By-the-way (BTW), there is a working “scientific” theory (yet to be proven otherwise) that “fossil” fuel is abiotic (8). In other words it is naturally produced from the earth’s magma core. A process that has been replicated in a laboratory. This would mean oil is not a depleting resource.

I presume that Huron, like most communities in the world, has streets paved with asphalt, aka bitumen, aka orimulsion “-which became the ‘fourth fossil fuel’ in the mid-1980s”(9). [Orimulsion is, also,] the cost-effective choice when compared to other fossil fuels used to generate electricity.” Unless you have to haul it in from out of state.

Speaking of diesel fumes, “Hot bitumen (asphalt paving) gives off emissions that can cause minor respiratory tract or eye irritation after prolonged, close exposure...”(10). On any paving day this pollutant alone is greater than the I-5 diesel trucks impact on Huron. That is another tough sell to Huron’s citizens and businesses to convert all the streets to concrete to avoid fossil fuel pollution.

Wind Turbines and Solar Panels combined, makes up a whopping 0.8% (zero point eight percent, that is less than 1%) of World Energy (see image 2). What is perhaps most discouraging, renewables are not keeping even with increased energy demand. They are falling behind.

In order to achieve 100% renewable energy California would have to rent the states of Nevada and Arizona and entirely cover them with solar panels and wind turbines. What happens when the wind stops and/or the sun goes down (aka nighttime)? Do you really want to have your lovely town depend on it’s survival based on whether or not the wind is blowing? In addition, non-fossil based energy would require massive structures for an energy collection system being placed in the ocean along our coastline.

I will not even go into the wholesale death of bats and endangered animals from wind turbine and solar farms.

Need I go on?

The only possible way to get off of “fossil” fuels is using nuclear power, which is the safest, cleanest, and most cost effective of all fuel choices (bar none). Hopefully you know this if you have done any kind of research beyond watching the 1979 Jane Fonda, Michael Douglas, and Jack Lemmon movie “China Syndrome.”

So why don’t you put away all this silliness about stopping fossil fuel and simply advocate for something that would actually solve the problem -nuclear energy?

Mayor: “Science has linked climate change to petroleum use and Huron is suffering from it.”
Can you name one scientist not affiliated with the United Nations or being paid as a “climate change” advocate who makes this claim? Have you personally seen any actual “raw” data, not computer model data? At worst case, humans’ CO2 production may contribute 2% to 4% to climate change --the actual human produced CO2 is 1 part in 10,000 (1:10,000) of the atmosphere.(11)

Are you aware that in an independent study conducted in 2009, two-thirds (2/3, 67%) of NOAA’s earth based thermometers were miscalibrated?(12) One can only imagine the miscalibrated state of thermometers in the rest of the world. And yet they (you know who) claim worldwide accuracy within 1 degree Celsius over 50 years and shout that this is a settled trend.

Do you know it’s a scientific fact that every single person who ate carrots prior to 1899 is dead. BTW, that is not science. But one could say death is associated with eating carrots.

Historical climate fact, the volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia in 1815 is credited with causing the year 1816 to be known as the “year without a summer” in the United States (13). It led to unpredictable and devastating weather conditions worldwide, cholera outbreaks in India, crops destroyed in China, and in Europe, food supplies dwindled, leading to starvation and panic. One single event via mother nature. So much for anthropologic global warming (AGW).

Mayor: “It [Huron] ... is exposed to emission from diesel truck traffic nearby on Interstate 5.”
Do you have even a single source to justify this statement? The amount of diesel truck emissions, as trucks travel passed Huron nearly 5 miles away, pales in comparison to the agricultural emission spewed into your city by the farms between I-5 and Huron proper. I believe agriculture is Huron’s single biggest revenue generator and jobs producer.

Mayor: “We’re in the San Joaquin Valley, the most contaminated air basin in the nation.”
This may well be true, but what is the ongoing source of “contamination”? I’m sure you know. It’s called food production. And it was even worse before we had cars. “Central Valley pollution is largely particulate matter, from pollen, fertilizing, and harvesting crops...”(14 & 15). Which, and yes of course, includes the fossil fuel needed to do such. And the fact that we live in a basin with the tallest mountains in the country on one side. “Food production accounts for more than 51% of all the pollution in the entire state”(15); which is far more concentrated in the Central Valley.

Mayor: “In Huron, our economy has been blasted due to the drought, very much related to climate change.”
I literally don’t know where to begin with such a ______ statement.
First, back to you. An average carnivore (omnivore, if you have some vegetables with your meat, milk, and eggs) wastes at least 1,500 gallons of water a day (eating 3 meat meals a day wastes as much as 4,000 gallons a day) over and above that of a vegetarian (aka herbivore at 300 gallons per day) (16). That is between 45,000 and 120,000 gallons of wasted water every single month by each and every person eating an animal based diet (aka SAD).

Second, the “drought” in California was a politically motivated and managed effort by the same kind of people who want to stop issuing permits for fossil fuel in the State. That’s right you are part of your own problem. Yes, there was a natural lessening of rain due to cooling conditions in the Pacific ocean, but there was never a “shortage” of available water for Huron or any other agricultural need. Shortages were faked by those who’s interests are to destroy farmers in the Central Valley.

You of all people should know the “drought” was contrived, -I realize this happened before you were Mayor.

“In July 2009, action by the Federal Bureau of Reclamation to protect threatened fish reduced irrigation pumping to parts of the California Central Valley causing canals leading into Huron and the surrounding areas and the farms that rely on them to dry up. Unemployment has reached over 40% as farms dried up.”(17)

Third, you do know that cooling water and air are what cause less rain/water to be distilled/evaporated from the oceans (18), which is what causes natural drought shortages? So called “global warming” would dramatically increase the rain delivered to the mountains and valleys, especially in the Central Valley. Further more, if warming were happening the snow melt would have increased.

To prove this, just put a pot of water on your stove and see how much evaporates while the burner is turned off. Then, try it with the burner turned on. Duh. As to CO2 causing warming, stick a straw (please don’t use a plastic straw) in the water and blow your lungs out (that’s CO2 BTW) you will not warm that pot of water a single degree. You will not carbonate the water either.

Mayor: “Pollution has increased one-hundred fold due to the wildfires that are occurring all around us.”
First, what has wildfire pollution got to do with fossil fuels?

Second, are you aware that “wildfires” in the U.S. have declined steadily over the last 6 decades to the point they are nearly half of what they were in the 1940s and 1950s. This is worldwide as well (see chart 3(19). BTW, 95% of wildfires are started by humans. Fewer people fewer fires, right? Oh, wait our population has more than doubled while fires have been cut in half. You’re right it has to be global warming, NOT.

Third, the problem we have in California is, once again, our “tree-huggers” have dominated politics so we have not properly managed our forests. The forests in California are a disgrace from both disease and fire intense ground foliage. Had lumber companies been allowed to harvest and manage, we could have avoided much of the “pollution” being spewed today.

Fourth, as noted earlier, “Central Valley pollution is largely particulate matter, from pollen, fertilizing, and harvesting crops; which, and yes of course, does include the fossil fuel needed to do such.”(14 & 15)

Mayor: “... stop issuing permits for fossil fuels” Why? What is your endorsed alternative?

The only result from not being energy self-sufficient in California is, it will cost more to feed our families, grow our crops, and travel; and will reduce our ability to compete in the world market for exports. Without its own fossil fuel resources, California would have to import energy from other states and countries, making us vulnerable to their whims and conditions.

All of this is especially bad news for Huron.

There is near zero benefit for what you are advocating, other than aesthetics. I challenge you to produce any credible evidence to the contrary.

The goal of your friends at “stop permits for fossil fuel” and others is to make everything so expensive that no one will be able to afford to have any children, thereby not just slowing the population growth; but reversing the earth’s population from 7.5 billion to somewhere in the 5 billion range (or less) (20). Just ask them, what is the goal for the ideal population for planet earth?

BTW, have you read, or do you know anyone who has read, any of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports? Now at least you know of someone who has. Right, I have. Believe me when I tell you that there are high school students who could construct a better report than that of Dr. Naomi Oreskes, who wrote the most (in)famous 2007 Chapter 4 IPCC 4th Assessment (21). It is filled with “sophomoric” arguments using syllogistic logic. For example, Dr. Oreskes (and the IPCC) claims the data supporting warming came from the American Meteorological Society (AMS). But, when I contacted the AMS they stated their conclusions were based on the IPCC data. This is called circular reasoning (logic) -a “circ-loop.”

Reminds me of the story of the man riding the train to work and everyday he would ask the conductor the time; believing that railroad time was always accurate. Finally one day the conductor asked, why the man asked the time every day. The man said he was responsible for setting the time on the clock in the town tower. Whereby the conductor informed him that he set his watch by the time on the town tower clock.

Are you aware of Methane Hydrate?(22) There are sufficient quantities of methane hydrate on earth to support the current rate of carbon based power consumption and growth for in excess of 1,000 years. That’s just scratching the surface (literally) the real amount is yet to be discovered because there has not yet been a method developed to explore for it beneath the surface.

Natural Oil Seeps and Spills (23). “Crude oil and natural gas naturally enter the ocean at areas known as ‘seeps.’ These hydrocarbons leak out of the ground through fractures and sediments, in the same way freshwater springs bring water to the surface.”

How Much Do Seeps Leak? In just southern California alone --“..these seeps contribute about 5 million gallons of oil to the ocean annually...”

“A 2003 report from the National Research Council (23) estimates that, on average, approximately 160,000 tonnes [176,000 tons U.S.] of petroleum enter North American waters through natural seeps each year.”

“...locations of seeps are consistent and predictable...” we know where they are but are prohibited from relieving them because of idiotic governmental rules and people like yourself.

Drilling off the California coast where these seeps have been located, would relieve the pressure and eliminate these continuously occurring natural disasters. Since we know where this oil is, there is no need for test drilling, and because of their close proximity to the shore, the cost to extract and deliver is drastically reduced; and the environmental safety is outstanding.

Is relieving these seeps part of the plan at “stop issuing fossil fuel permits”? Or do they just not care that our beaches are continually being polluted?


If you choose to fact check be sure to use multiple sources; a typical left wing source is “Snopes” and often they will slant and disparage opposition. The Bee is notorious for erroneous information so if you didn’t say what was quoted, so be it. However, even Google with its demonstrated liberal leaning bias will cough up fact after fact that what I’m telling you is accurate.

The harder problem is removing oneself from the “echo chamber” of those who do not know what they are talking about, aka “science deniers” or more accurately “solar deniers.” The sun being the real cause of warming and/or cooling (18). Did you know that in some places the temperature drops as much as 50 degrees after the sun goes down?

If you really truly believe in “fixing” the environment, the single greatest impact with virtually no government intervention – just choose to not eat meat, milk, or eggs. This would be a far, far greater benefit to mankind than all the anti-fossil fuel initiatives combined.

Other than wanting to be politically correct (PC, aka “saying whatever is popular”), or feel good; –If you eat meat, drink cow’s milk, consume chicken eggs you cannot lay (pun not intended) claim to being concerned about the environment. It’s a lie, hypocrisy , or ignorance – your choice. You cannot pretend to care about environment or climate change and be an omnivore.

In order to end the use of “fossil” fuels, it is essential to do two (2) things:
1. Become a vegetarian (vegan is best) and
2. Support nuclear energy.
Outside of these two things anyone who professes otherwise is a liar, hypocrite, or just plain ignorant – your choice.

Just wanted you to know I’ve got your back. So if you have anything else to say on the environment feel free to check-in with me.
*Huron, California is located in central California in Fresno County it is a city of 1.6 square miles and a population as of the 2010 census was 6,754, up from 6,306 at the 2000 census. BTW/FYI, is not working.
I had to go to,_California to get info on Huron.

**Elected Officials To Protect California, is the anonymous group behind the “stop issuing permits for fossil fuels” petition campaign.


End Notes and Sources

Rey León, I believe it is Spanish for Lion King, was elected Mayor of Huron in 2017, Founder/Executive Director, Valley LEAP, 2008, Fresno, CA Latino Environmental Advancement & Policy (LEAP) is a Latino-Valley based environmental justice community institution in Fresno CA. Founder/Chair, SJ Valley Regional Green Jobs Coalition, 2008.

1. Institute on the Environment (IonE), University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, 1 Aug 2013. “... in the United States, where just 27 percent of crop calories are consumed directly... more than 67 percent of crops ... goes to animal feed. And a portion of the rest goes to ethanol and other biofuels. ...100 calories of grain to produce just 12 calories of chicken or 3 calories worth of beef...
Redefining agricultural yields: from tonnes to people nourished per hectare
Emily S Cassidy, Paul C West, James S Gerber and Jonathan A Foley, 2 May 2103

2. 20% of fish is fed to animals; 45% of all animal greenhouse gas emissions are from producing & processing food to feed animals

3. Pig Excrement Spills Into North Carolina Floodwater, Bloomberg, 18 Sep 2018.
The real concern, he said, is the hog lagoons. “The waste just sits there,” he said. “It’s not treated in any form. We are talking about hundreds of thousands of pigs.”
NC has 3,300 lagoons ... blamed for polluting groundwater... Hog waste contains E. coli ... dangerous levels of E. coli in water even after floods receded. 10,000 hogs and 1.7 million chickens died... North Carolina is home to more swine than any state besides Iowa -- 9 million of them, more hogs than New York City has humans. ...reared on contract for companies including Smithfield Foods Inc., the world’s biggest pork processor, which is owned by Hong Kong’s WH Group Ltd.
The average pig produces about three to four times the amount of organic waste as a human each day, according to Daniel Andersen, an Iowa State University...

4. “While carbon dioxide is typically painted as the bad boy of greenhouse gases, methane is roughly 30 times more potent as a heat-trapping gas.” “A more potent greenhouse gas than CO2, methane emissions will leap as Earth warms (Nature),” Princeton Research, March 26, 2014, By Morgan Kelly, Office of Communications. “NEW RESEARCH FINDINGS FROM PRINCETON UNIVERSITY”

5. Animal protein production requires more than eight times as much fossil-fuel energy than production of plant protein... 7 Aug 1997, Cornell University, “U.S. could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat, Cornell ecologist advises animal scientists.”

6. “The energy consumed (water, grain, to produce one “quarter pounder” of beef would feed 3 people for an entire day.” “The demand for meat,” he says, “has a multiplier effect of 10. You need 10 times as much land, 10 times as much [feed], 10 times as much water to produce one calorie of meat as you do to have one calorie of vegetables or grain.” on J. Morris Hicks website at WSJ on 9-3-2011, the CEO of the world’s largest food company (Nestle was quoted) Mr. Peter Brabeck-Letmathe.

Standard American Diet (SAD), heavily comprised of animal protein and dairy. 7.9 billion acres of arable land in the world; If it takes 3.25 acres to feed one person the typical western diet, then our 7 billion+ people would required over 21 billion acres, or the equivalent of almost three planet Earths.

7. “Every time you make 1 gallon of ethanol, there is a net energy loss of 54,000 Btu." Ethanol from corn costs about $1.74 per gallon to produce, compared with about 95 cents to produce a gallon of gasoline. – 70 Percent More Energy Required to Make Ethanol than Actually is in Ethanol: Cornell
"Abusing our precious croplands to grow corn for an energy-inefficient process that yields low-grade automobile fuel amounts to unsustainable, subsidized food burning,"

If all the automobiles in the United States were fueled with 100 percent ethanol, a total of about 97 percent of U.S. land area would be needed to grow the corn feedstock. Corn would cover nearly the total land area of the United States.
March 6, 2009, Cornell Chronicle, by Roger Segelken

8. There is an alternative theory about the formation of oil and gas deposits that could change estimates of potential future oil reserves. According to this theory, oil is not a fossil fuel at all, but was formed deep in the Earth’s crust from inorganic materials.
The Environmental Literacy Council, 1625 K Street, NW, Ste 1020, Washington, DC -

9. Orimulsion became the “fourth fossil fuel” in the mid-1980s. It is derived from the bitumen that occurs naturally in large reserves in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela. It is estimated that there are more than 1.2 trillion barrels of bitumen available in reserves, an amount greater than 50 percent of the world's estimated oil reserves.

Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal, fuel oil or natural gas, formed from the remains of dead plants and animals. In common dialogue, the term fossil fuel also includes hydrocarbon-containing natural resources that are not derived from [living] animal or [living] plant sources.

Bitumen aka asphalt (in US) aka bitumen of Judea, or Syrian asphalt, is a naturally occurring asphalt that has been put to many uses since ancient times.

10. Hot bitumen (e.g., asphalt paving) gives off emissions that can cause minor respiratory tract or eye irritation after prolonged, close exposure.

11. The Climate Chronicles: Inconvenient Revelations You Won't Hear From Al Gore--And Others, by Joe Bastardi, Jan 2018
“...humans contribution to CO2 is 1 part in 10,000 of total greenhouse gases.”
Joe Bastardi is an institution in the science of weather prediction and is co-chief Meteorologist at WeatherBell

12. “Watts and his fellow researchers found only 410 “unperturbed” weather stations out of the 1,218 stations used by NOAA to determine U.S. climate trends.” An independent study conducted in 2009, two-thirds (2/3, 67%) of NOAA’s earth based thermometers were miscalibrated?

13. 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, In summer 1816, countries in the Northern Hemisphere suffered extreme weather conditions, dubbed the "Year Without a Summer". Average global temperatures decreased by about 0.4 to 0.7 °C (0.7 to 1.3 °F), enough to cause significant agricultural problems around the globe. On 4 June 1816, frosts were reported in the upper elevations of New Hampshire, Maine, Vermont, and northern New York. On 6 June 1816, snow fell in Albany, New York, and Dennysville, Maine. Such conditions occurred for at least three months and ruined most agricultural crops in North America.

14. Why Does California's Central Valley Have Such Bad Air Pollution? Sep 2011
“The region’s agriculture is responsible for much of the region’s pollution.”
“The problem is getting better, but it’s by no means solved.”

15. But farmland in the Golden State emits about the same amount of certain pollution-forming gases as on-road vehicles, a new study shows. That’s much more than researchers had previously estimated, bumping up estimates of the total production of these gases in the state by as much as 51 percent.
California Farms Are a Silent but Sizable Source of Air Pollution
Soil microbes convert fertilizer to nitrogen oxides, emitting about as much of the gases as on-road vehicles in the state, by Deirdre Lockwood, February 6, 2018

16. "To produce a single pound of meat takes an average of 2,500 gallons of water-as much as a typical family uses for all its combined household purposes in a month. To produce a day's food for one meat-eater takes over 4,000 gallons; for a lacto-ovo vegetarian, only 1,200 gallons; for a pure vegetarian, only 300 gallons." Pg 341
Diet for a New America 25th Anniversary Edition: How Your Food Choices Affect Your Health, Your Happiness, and the Future of Life on Earth, John Robbins, 2012 Edition,

17. 2009 Reduced irrigation pumping to Huron to save “fish.”,_California

18. Analysis: Why the Sun Controls the Climate and CO2 is Meaningless
Climate Depot, by Admin, 12 Jun 2018
“Climate alarmists point to the warming of the oceans as evidence that CO2 is the cause. The problem with that theory is that they can’t explain how LWIR (Longwave Infrared) [which come from the sun] between 13 and 18µ warms the oceans (Click Here). LWIR between 13 and 18µ doesn’t penetrate the oceans and actually causes cooling through surface evaporation. Additionally, LWIR between 13 and 18µ is very very low energy EM Radiation when compared to EM wavelengths that do actually penetrate and warm the oceans, wavelengths mostly at the blue end of the spectrum. CO2, in reality, is a very weak Greenhouse Gas (Click Here) in terms of warming the atmosphere and the oceans.”

19. Source of Wildfires, image 3. The Blaze ...95% caused by humans...
‘First look at the facts’: Glenn Beck on climate change and California’s record-breaking wildfires, Glenn Beck, Aug 22, 2018 9:05 am

20. Ruth Bader Ginsburg Really Wants Poor People To Stop Having Babies
The, 21Sep2014, by Mollie Hemingway
U.S. Fertility Rate Drops to All Time Low, Cut in Half Since 1950s
Breitbart, 24Sep2018, by John Binder

21. UN IPCC Chapter 4 IPCC 4th Assessment, page 65 to 99, “The scientific consensus on climate change: How do we know we’re not wrong?”
Dr. Naomi Oreskes, Publication date 2007/9/30

22. Methane Hydrate enough for consumption and growth over 1,000 years.

Methane Hydrate --The world's largest natural gas resource is trapped beneath permafrost and ocean sediments. Article by: Hobart M. King, Ph.D., RPG

23. Natural Oil Seeps and Spills
“...estimates that, on average, approximately 160,000 tonnes of petroleum enter North American waters through natural seeps each year. “ “The waters off southern California are one area in particular which host hundreds of known, naturally occurring oil and gas seeps. These seeps contribute about 5 million gallons of oil to the ocean annually, with wide year to year variation. They likely have been leaking for thousands of years.” “What Are Natural Oil Seeps?” 2003 report from National Research Council, NOAA

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Image 2 - Bjorn Lomborg, Cool It

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